Antique Typewriters

The Martin Howard Collection




Hall Braille-writer 1

Hall Braille-writer 1


Harrison & Seifried, Chicago
1892 - serial no.25

The Hall Braille-writer shown here is serial no. 25 and is only one of two known surviving examples (no. 77 also survives) from the first batch of 100. These early examples have a somewhat different carriage design from what would follow. This machine came out of the estate of the son of Theodore C. Leutz. Leutz was a violinist before he lost his eyesight. He was born and lived in America from 1877 until 1954. He was very much involved in helping the blind and I am honored to have his Braille-writer in my collection.

The Hall Braille-writer was invented by Frank H. Hall, superintendent of the Illinois Institution for the Education of the Blind. It was the first successful and widely used mechanical Braille-writer. Up to this time blind typists would use a stylus and writing board, with the stylus embossing Braille dots in reverse fashion onto paper on the writing board. To be read, the page is removed from the writing board and turned over. Hall’s machine was of a simple and practical design with six piano like keys that can be pushed in any combination to create a Braille character in one action using either one or both hands. The pins to emboss the paper come up from the underside of the paper thus printing right side up, allowing the operator to read what they wrote as it was written. Operators were able to write around 30 to 50 words a minute, a vast improvement over the stylus and writing board.

The six dot Braille alphabet soon become the international standard and spelled the end of the kleidograph Braille-Writer which used an eight dot system, which is also shown in this collection

In 1892, Hall had the skilled local Gunsmith and Metal worker Gustav Siebel make a prototype of his machine. Hall took Sieber's prototype to the Munson Typewriter Company in Chicago, where superintendent T.B. Harrison and designer Samuel J. Seifried, inventor of the Munson typewriter, created six pilot models. Harrison and Seifried in seeing the great potential of this revolutionary machine, then left the Munson Typewriter Company to start their own company. They made an additional 94 machines based on the initial design for Hall. The Hall Braille-writers that followed were essentially of the same design but there were alterations to be seen, especially in the carriage construction.

From a ‘Brief History of the Illinois Institution for the Education of the Blind 1849-1893’:

“Under the direction of the Superintendent, a machine for writing Braille has been constructed by which a pupil can write many times as fast as he could write with a ‘stylus and tablet’, with the further advantage of having what he has written in a convenient position to be read. With these machines the pupils solve their problems in algebra and write their letters and school exercises.”

“Although the first machine was not completed till May 27, 1892, twenty-five are now in use in this institution, and about seventy-five have been contracted and sold to other institutions and to blind people. Fourteen are in use in the Boston school, nine in St. Louis, twelve in Philadelphia, six in Alabama, two in California, five have been shipped to England, and the remainder to private individuals in different parts of the United States.”

“A machine has also been constructed, The Hall Stereotype-maker, (see illustration below) by means of which work can be written on copper plates. These plates can be used as stereotypes for printing with an ordinary press. Thousands of copies can be printed from each plate."

Another rare period account can be seen below in the third Period Advertisement from the Missouri School for the Blind.

It is heart warming to note that Hall's motivation was not to get rich but was to improve the ability of blind people to write. Hall did not protect his invention by applying for a patent and it was not priced to make a profit at $10 to manufacture and with a selling price of $11.

My friend Norman Ball has written a very interesting story about the history of Braille and the Hall Braille-writer at his blog Parisian Fields.

Here is a well written article about the history of Braille and the battle to make it the standard system of writing for the blind. Before Braille Was King.


Detailed Typewriter Image


Hall Braille-writer 1 Hall Braille-writer 1 Hall Braille-writer 1

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Hall Braille-writer 1 Hall Braille-writer 1 Hall Braille-writer 1